Terima Kasih Pupuk Fosfat Purba Atas Partisipasinya Bagi Kehidupan

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KeSimpulan.com - Munculnya kehidupan yang lebih kompleks di Bumi didorong di fosfat yang sekarang dikenal sebagai pupuk tanaman.

Timothy Lyons dari University of California, Riverside, dan rekannya mempelajari bagaimana fosfat diubah dalam lautan Bumi selama 3 milyar tahun terakhir dengan mengukur jumlah relatif fosfor dalam 700 sampel dari berbagai formasi batu karang di seluruh dunia. Semakin banyak deposit fosfor dalam bebatuan berarti lebih banyak mineral fosfat di laut tersebut ketika terbentuk. Tim mematok antara 750 hingga 620 juta tahun yang lalu di mana fosfat jauh lebih tinggi dan melaporkan ke Nature:

Phosphorus is a biolimiting nutrient that has an important role in regulating the burial of organic matter and the redox state of the ocean–atmosphere system. The ratio of phosphorus to iron in iron-oxide-rich sedimentary rocks can be used to track dissolved phosphate concentrations if the dissolved silica concentration of sea water is estimated. Here we present iron and phosphorus concentration ratios from distal hydrothermal sediments and iron formations through time to study the evolution of the marine phosphate reservoir. The data suggest that phosphate concentrations have been relatively constant over the Phanerozoic eon, the past 542 million years (Myr) of Earth’s history. In contrast, phosphate concentrations seem to have been elevated in Precambrian oceans. Specifically, there is a peak in phosphorus-to-iron ratios in Neoproterozoic iron formations dating from ~750 to ~635 Myr ago, indicating unusually high dissolved phosphate concentrations in the aftermath of widespread, low-latitude ‘snowball Earth’ glaciations. An enhanced postglacial phosphate flux would have caused high rates of primary productivity and organic carbon burial and a transition to more oxidizing conditions in the ocean and atmosphere. The snowball Earth glaciations and Neoproterozoic oxidation are both suggested as triggers for the evolution and radiation of metazoans. We propose that these two factors are intimately linked; a glacially induced nutrient surplus could have led to an increase in atmospheric oxygen, paving the way for the rise of metazoan life.

Kandungan tinggi sesuai dengan periode yang dikenal sebagai bola salju Bumi atau snowball Earth, ketika sebagian atau mungkin seluruh planet diselimuti es. Lyons mengatakan lapisan es akan menggeser kontinental, melepaskan sejumlah besar batu dan sedimen yang kaya fosfat. Ketika es mencair, fosfat tersapu dan terakumulasi ke dalam lautan. Fosfat adalah pupuk yang akan mendorong berkembangnya kehidupan awal. Pada gilirannya akan memproduksi oksigen tambahan ke atmosfer sehingga lebih ramah terhadap kehidupan multisel.
  1. Noah J. Planavsky, Olivier J. Rouxel, Andrey Bekker, Stefan V. Lalonde, Kurt O. Konhauser, Christopher T. Reinhard and Timothy W. Lyons. The evolution of the marine phosphate reservoir, Nature 467, 1088-1090 (28 October 2010), DOI:10.1038/nature09485
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1 comment:

  1. phosphat memiliki peran penting bagi tanaman, karena tanaman yang kekurangan pupuk kandungan phosphat akan berdampak buruk.

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